Hiroshima, the Immorality of War, and Repentance

Sixty-nine years ago today, an atomic bomb was dropped on men, women, and children in Hiroshima, Japan. The unspeakable carnage and destruction which ensued are difficult to articulate even nearly seven decades later. Today, it is important for us to reflect and to remember.

Perhaps one of the best ways to remember is to listen to the words of Father George Zabelka, the Catholic Air Force Chaplain who blessed the bomb that was dropped on this day. Below is an extended excerpt from a speech given on the 40th anniversary of the bombing.

The destruction of civilians in war was always forbidden by the Church, and if a soldier came to me and asked if he could put a bullet through a child's head, I would have told him, absolutely not. That would be mortally sinful. But in 1945 Tinian Island was the largest airfield in the world. Three planes a minute could take off from it around the clock. Many of these planes went to Japan with the express purpose of killing not one child or one civilian but of slaughtering hundreds and thousands and tens of thousands of children and civilians – and I said nothing.

As a Catholic chaplain I watched as the Boxcar, piloted by a good Irish Catholic pilot, dropped the bomb on Urakami Cathedral in Nagasaki, the center of Catholicism in Japan.

I never preached a single sermon against killing civilians to the men who were doing it. I was brainwashed! It never entered my mind to protest publicly the consequences of these massive air raids. I was told it was necessary – told openly by the military and told implicitly by my Church's leadership. (To the best of my knowledge no American cardinals or bishops were opposing these mass air raids. Silence in such matters is a stamp of approval.)

I worked with Martin Luther King, Jr., during the Civil Rights struggle in Flint, Michigan. His example and his words of nonviolent action, choosing love instead of hate, truth instead of lies, and nonviolence instead of violence stirred me deeply. This brought me face to face with pacifism – active nonviolent resistance to evil. I recall his words after he was jailed in Montgomery, and this blew my mind. He said, "Blood may flow in the streets of Montgomery before we gain our freedom, but it must be our blood that flows, and not that of the white man. We must not harm a single hair on the head of our white brothers."

I struggled. I argued. But yes, there it was in the Sermon on the Mount, very clear: "Love your enemies. Return good for evil." I went through a crisis of faith. Either accept what Christ said, as unpassable and silly as it may seem, or deny him completely.

For the last 1700 years the Church has not only been making war respectable: it has been inducing people to believe it is an honorable profession, an honorable Christian profession. This is not true. We have been brainwashed. This is a lie.

War is now, always has been, and always will be bad, bad news. I was there. I saw real war. Those who have seen real war will bear me out. I assure you, it is not of Christ. It is not Christ's way. There is no way to conduct real war in conformity with the teachings of Jesus. There is no way to train people for real war in conformity with the teachings of Jesus.

The morality of the balance of terrorism is a morality that Christ never taught. The ethics of mass butchery cannot be found in the teachings of Jesus. In Just War ethics, Jesus Christ, who is supposed to be all in the Christian life, is irrelevant. He might as well never have existed. In Just War ethics, no appeal is made to him or his teaching, because no appeal can be made to him or his teaching, for neither he nor his teaching gives standards for Christians to follow in order to determine what level of slaughter is acceptable.

So the world is watching today. Ethical hairsplitting over the morality of various types of instruments and structures of mass slaughter is not what the world needs from the Church, although it is what the world has come to expect from the followers of Christ. What the world needs is a grouping of Christians that will stand up and pay up with Jesus Christ. What the world needs is Christians who, in language that the simplest soul could understand, will proclaim: the follower of Christ cannot participate in mass slaughter. He or she must love as Christ loved, live as Christ lived, and, if necessary, die as Christ died, loving ones enemies.

For the 300 years immediately following Jesus' resurrection, the Church universally saw Christ and his teaching as nonviolent. Remember that the Church taught this ethic in the face of at least three serious attempts by the state to liquidate her. It was subject to horrendous and ongoing torture and death. If ever there was an occasion for justified retaliation and defensive slaughter, whether in form of a just war or a just revolution, this was it. The economic and political elite of the Roman state and their military had turned the citizens of the state against Christians and were embarked on a murderous public policy of exterminating the Christian community.

Yet the Church, in the face of the heinous crimes committed against her members, insisted without reservation that when Christ disarmed Peter he disarmed all Christians.

Christians continued to believe that Christ was, to use the words of an ancient liturgy, their fortress, their refuge, and their strength, and that if Christ was all they needed for security and defense, then Christ was all they should have. Indeed, this was a new security ethic. Christians understood that if they would only follow Christ and his teaching, they couldn't fail. When opportunities were given for Christians to appease the state by joining the fighting Roman army, these opportunities were rejected, because the early Church saw a complete and an obvious incompatibility between loving as Christ loved and killing. It was Christ, not Mars, who gave security and peace.

Today the world is on the brink of ruin because the Church refuses to be the Church, because we Christians have been deceiving ourselves and the non-Christian world about the truth of Christ. There is no way to follow Christ, to love as Christ loved, and simultaneously to kill other people. It is a lie to say that the spirit that moves the trigger of a flamethrower is the Holy Spirit. It is a lie to say that learning to kill is learning to be Christ-like. It is a lie to say that learning to drive a bayonet into the heart of another is motivated from having put on the mind of Christ. Militarized Christianity is a lie. It is radically out of conformity with the teaching, life, and spirit of Jesus.

Now, brothers and sisters, on the anniversary of this terrible atrocity carried out by Christians, I must be the first to say that I made a terrible mistake. I was had by the father of lies. I participated in the big ecumenical lie of the Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox churches. I wore the uniform. I was part of the system. When I said Mass over there I put on those beautiful vestments over my uniform. (When Father Dave Becker left the Trident submarine base in 1982 and resigned as Catholic chaplain there, he said, "Every time I went to Mass in my uniform and put the vestments on over my uniform, I couldn't help but think of the words of Christ applying to me: Beware of wolves in sheep's clothing.")

As an Air Force chaplain I painted a machine gun in the loving hands of the nonviolent Jesus, and then handed this perverse picture to the world as truth. I sang "Praise the Lord" and passed the ammunition. As Catholic chaplain for the 509th Composite Group, I was the final channel that communicated this fraudulent image of Christ to the crews of the Enola Gay and the Boxcar.

All I can say today is that I was wrong. Christ would not be the instrument to unleash such horror on his people. Therefore no follower of Christ can legitimately unleash the horror of war on God's people. Excuses and self-justifying explanations are without merit. All I can say is: I was wrong! But, if this is all I can say, this I must do, feeble as it is. For to do otherwise would be to bypass the first and absolutely essential step in the process of repentance and reconciliation: admission of error, admission of guilt.

There is no way to conduct real war in conformity with the teachings of Jesus.

I was there, and I was wrong. Yes, war is Hell, and Christ did not come to justify the creation of Hell on earth by his disciples. The justification of war may be compatible with some religions and philosophies, but it is not compatible with the nonviolent teaching of Jesus. I was wrong. And to those of whatever nationality or religion who have been hurt because I fell under the influence of the father of lies, I say with my whole heart and soul I am sorry. I beg forgiveness.

I asked forgiveness from the Hibakushas (the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombings) in Japan last year, in a pilgrimage that I made with a group from Tokyo to Hiroshima. I fell on my face there at the peace shrine after offering flowers, and I prayed for forgiveness – for myself, for my country, for my Church. Both Nagasaki and Hiroshima. This year in Toronto, I again asked forgiveness from the Hibakushas present. I asked forgiveness, and they asked forgiveness for Pearl Harbor and some of the horrible deeds of the Japanese military, and there were some, and I knew of them. We embraced. We cried. Tears flowed. That is the first step of reconciliation – admission of guilt and forgiveness. Pray to God that others will find this way to peace.

All religions have taught brotherhood. All people want peace. It is only the governments and war departments that promote war and slaughter. So today again I call upon people to make their voices heard. We can no longer just leave this to our leaders, both political and religious. They will move when we make them move. They represent us. Let us tell them

that they must think and act for the safety and security of all the people in our world, not just for the safety and security of one country. All countries are interdependent. We all need one another. It is no longer possible for individual countries to think only of themselves. We can all live together as brothers and sisters or we are doomed to die together as fools in a world holocaust.

Each one of us becomes responsible for the crime of war by cooperating in its preparation and in its execution. This includes the military. This includes the making of weapons. And it includes paying for the weapons. There's no question about that. We've got to realize we all become responsible. Silence, doing nothing, can be one of the greatest sins.

The bombing of Nagasaki means even more to me than the bombing of Hiroshima. By August 9, 1945, we knew what that bomb would do, but we still dropped it. We knew that agonies and sufferings would ensue, and we also knew – at least our leaders knew – that it was not necessary. The Japanese were already defeated. They were already suing for peace. But we insisted on unconditional surrender, and this is even against the Just War theory. Once the enemy is defeated, once the enemy is not able to hurt you, you must make peace.

Militarized Christianity is a lie. It is radically out of conformity with the teaching, life, and spirit of Jesus.

As a Catholic chaplain I watched as the Boxcar, piloted by a good Irish Catholic pilot, dropped the bomb on Urakami Cathedral in Nagasaki, the center of Catholicism in Japan. I knew that St. Francis Xavier, centuries before, had brought the Catholic faith to Japan. I knew that schools, churches, and religious orders were annihilated. And yet I said nothing.

Thank God that I'm able to stand here today and speak out against war, all war. The prophets of the Old Testament spoke out against all false gods of gold, silver, and metal. Today we are worshipping the gods of metal, the bomb. We are putting our trust in physical power, militarism, and nationalism. The bomb, not God, is our security and our strength. The prophets of the Old Testament said simply: Do not put your trust in chariots and weapons, but put your trust in God. Their message was simple, and so is mine.

We must all become prophets. I really mean that. We must all do something for peace. We must stop this insanity of worshipping the gods of metal. We must take a stand against evil and idolatry. This is our destiny at the most critical time of human history. But it's also the greatest opportunity ever offered to any group of people in the history of our world – to save our world from complete annihilation.


#SilentCofC: Child Sexual Abuse and Churches of Christ

There is a looming crisis of faith in the Protestant world. An issue that we have so long relegated to the inevitable consequences of mandatory celibacy in the Catholic Church is coming home to roost in our own traditions. Many believe (myself included) that the Protestant sexual abuse scandal will by far outstrip anything that has happened to the Catholic Church in the last two decades. 

Most concerning to me (and at the point of the collision of my professional life and my religious tradition) is that if our past is any indicator, if our current practices (or more importantly, our lack thereof) suggest anything, it is that for too long the Churches of Christ have been a safe place for perpetrators of childhood sexual abuse and a dangerous place for our children. 

(Allow me a moment of disclaimer so that those who disagree might be better enabled to actually engage with my argument: This article is not to suggest that this has (necessarily) been a conscious choice in the schools, universities, and churches within our tradition. But it is to suggest that our polity structure (both in the church and in the family), our lack of intervention for victims, a lack of consistent and pro-active prevention, and our unwillingness or lack of ability to at least keep pace with the rest of the Protestant world has made the Churches of Christ particularly vulnerable to the kinds of predators that I am discussing here.)

So this is what I want to attempt to explore in this long, sometimes tedious, and yet extremely important conversation. 

  • Childhood sexual abuse is prevalent in our society, and it is particularly prevalent in the context of religious communities. 
  • We have stories and documented incidents within our own tradition that should have served as an impetus to address this issue years ago. 
  • This is an issue, alongside adult sexual violence, (e.g., teen dating violence, sexual assault on campus, intimate partner violence, and domestic violence) that affects every church and institution in our fellowship. 
  • We have failed to keep pace with the vast majority of the Christian world in implementing policies and practices that prevent child sexual abuse in our churches.  
  • We must find ways and resources to break our silence, confess our complicity, intervene for victims, and prevent further abuse as swiftly as possible.


This information is drawn from the following resources:

US Department of Justice – National Sex Offender Public Website
RAINN (Rape, Abuse, and Incest National Network)


  • 15% of sexual assault and rape victims are under age 12.[i]

  • 29% are age 12-17.

  • 44% are under age 18.

  • 80% are under age 30.

  • 12-34 are the highest risk years.

  • Girls ages 16-19 are 4 times more likely than the general population to be victims of rape, attempted rape, or sexual assault.

  • 7% of girls in grades 5-8 and 12% of girls in grades 9-12 said they had been sexually abused.[ii]

  • 3% of boys grades 5-8 and 5% of boys in grades 9-12 said they had been sexually abused.

Victims of sexual assault are:[iii]

  • 3 times more likely to suffer from depression.
  • 6 times more likely to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder.
  • 13 times more likely to abuse alchohol.
  • 26 times more likely to abuse drugs.
  • 4 times more likely to contemplate suicide.

 From the National Sex Offender Public Website:

  • As many as 1 in 3 girls and 1 in 7 boys will be sexually abused at some point in their childhood.[iv]
  • Most perpetrators are acquaintances, but as many as 47% are family or extended family.
  • In as many as 93% of child sexual abuse cases, the child knows the person that commits the abuse.[v]
  • Approximately 30% of cases are reported to authorities.[vi]
  • Approximately 1.8 million adolescents in the United States have been the victims of sexual assault.[vii]
  • 33% of sexual assaults occur when the victim is between the ages of 12 and 17.[viii]
  • 82% of all juvenile victims are female.
  • 69% of the teen sexual assaults reported to law enforcement occurred in the residence of the victim, the offender, or another individual.
  • Teens 16 to 19 years of age were 3 1/2 times more likely than the general population to be victims of rape, attempted rape, or sexual assault. [ix]
  • Over 63,000 cases of child sexual abuse were reported in 2010.[x]
  • Children ages 12–15 have the highest percentage of sexual abuse, among all types of abuse, for children under 18 years of age.[xi]

Myths and Factors about the disclosure of abuse by children:[xii]

  • Myth: If a child is sexually abused, she or he will immediately come and tell.
  • Myth: Children disclose immediately after the abuse and provide a detailed account of what has occurred.
  • Myth: Children are more likely to disclose if directly questioned by their parent or an adult authority figure who can help.
  • Myth: Disclosure is always a one-time event.
  • Fact: Disclosure of sexual abuse is often delayed; children often avoid telling because they are either afraid of a negative reaction from their parents or of being harmed by the abuser. As such, they often delay disclosure until adulthood.
  • Fact: A common presumption is that children will give one detailed, clear account of abuse. This is not consistent with research; disclosures often unfold gradually and may be presented in a series of hints.
  • Fact: Children might imply something has happened to them without directly stating they were sexually abused—they may be testing the reaction to their “hint.”
  • Fact: If they are ready, children may then follow with a larger hint if they think it will be handled well.
  • Fact: It’s easy to miss hints of disclosure of abuse. As a result, a child may not receive the help needed.


Sometimes there is the naïve assumption that because of our religious convictions that Christian churches and organizations would inherently be more safe than other contexts when it came to the potential for childhood sexual abuse. This is a myth. While most of the instances of sexual abuse we hear about in churches are perpetrated by clergy (give a couple of example links), we fail to recognize that religiosity is actually in many cases a predictor of perpetrators.

One important study even suggests that “stayers” (individuals who have maintained religious involvement from childhood through adulthood) had more victims, more convictions, and younger victims than people with lesser degrees of “religious affiliation”. 

One of the chilling conclusions of the study is this:

…an explanation for the positive relationship between religious affiliation and sexual offending may be found in current research indicating a peak in sexual offending once offenders’ reach their late 30’s (Hanson, 2002). It has been suggested that this peak is the result of increased opportunities (eg. greater access to victims as offenders become fathers, attain trusted positions in the workforce or family). It is highly possible that situational dynamics within the church community may lead to a rise in opportunities for unsupervised access to vulnerable victims. It is a reasonable assumption that the “stayers” possibly continued to offend because the proximate causes of the crime, such an environment, lack of supervision, and continued opportunities, were not disrupted (Sampson & Laub, 2004). (pg. 286)

Sexual abuse perpetrated by clergy often has a number of different dynamics than abuse perpetrated by people in churches who lack official position and authority. There are studies exploring the dynamics of clergy offenders, as well as other resources and organizations dedicated to the complexities of child sexual abuse in churches by both clergy and laity such as the Gundersen National Child Protection Training Center, the Faith Trust Institute, and GRACE (Godly Response to Abuse in the Christian Environment).

One of the most helpful introductory resources for this conversation is a great article (published in the Journal of Psychology and Theology) entitled, What Would Walther Do? Applying Law and Gospel to Victims and Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse by Victor Vieth.

Here are eight key insights (among others) from this rich article:

False allegations of child sexual abuse are rare.

“Although all child protection professionals need to be mindful of the possibility of false allegations, a number of studies conclude that false claims of sexual abuse are rare (Oates et al., 2000) and that when children do lie, it is usually done to protect the perpetrator, not to get anyone in trouble (Lawson & Chaffin, 1992). … Accordingly, it is unreasonable for any pastor to automatically assume that an allegation of abuse, even against a respected member of the church, is untrue."

There is great fear for the child when it comes to disclosure.

“…the secrecy is often a source of fear in which the perpetrator conveys to the child that bad things will happen if there is a disclosure. Bad things may include the abuse of the child’s sibling, non-offending parent, or pet. Disclosure may result in the victim’s placement in a foster home. Disclosure may result in the child’s embarrassment in front of fellow classmates who learn details of the sexual abuse through media or other sources. The child may fear that disclosure will result in his or her condemnation in their church community.”

Children “cope” with the trauma of sexual abuse in a variety of ways ranging from self-justification (“I am protecting _____” or the promise of some pending reward), dissociation (pretending or imagining to be in a different place) during the abuse, or some form of mental illness.

“Clergy and laity alike should not assume that Christian victims of abuse are immune form dissociative identity disorder. … If a child cannot figure out a way to cope emotionally, what Summit (1983) calls a psychic economy, feelings of rage may cause a child to commit suicide, engage in self-mutilation, become promiscuous, or develop other harmful patterns of behavior. Clergy and laity unaware of these and other dynamics may be quick to dismiss a child’s allegations of abuse, concluding the child is exhibiting mental illness or is not credible given the closeness with a perpetrator and the many “kindnesses” a child has received from an offender. Similarly, the Christian pastor or lay member may unwittingly focus on delinquent or other behaviors without realizing these behaviors reflect deep-seated childhood trauma.”

Spiritual injuries result from childhood sexual abuse

“There are a number of studies documenting the impact of abuse on spirituality. For example, in one study of 527 victims of child abuse (physical, sexual, or emotional) it was found that there were significant “spiritual injury” such as feelings of guilt, anger, grief, despair, doubt, fear of death, and belief that God is unfair (Lawson, Drebing, Berg, Vincellette, & Penk, 1998).

Rarely is there only one victim.

“…church leaders [fail] to recognize that many pedophiles molest hundreds, even thousands of children without ever getting caught (Abel et al., 1987).”

Child molesters manipulate both children and the church.

“Child molesters, particularly those meeting the diagnostic criteria of pedophilia, are extremely manipulative of not only their victims but also the church as a whole. According to Salter (2003, p. 28) ‘If children can be silenced and the average person is easy to fool, many offenders report that religious people are even easier to fool than most people.’ In the words of one convicted child molester:

I consider church people easy to fool… they have a trust that comes from being Christians… They tend to be better folks all around. And they seem to want to believe in the good that exists in all people… I think they want to believe in people. And because of that, you can easily convince, with or without convincing words. (Salter, 2003, p. 29).

Not only are child molesters skilled at lying to pastors and parishioners alike, they are often proud of their abilities to fool leaders and members of their congregations. In the words of one convicted child molester:

(T)here was a great amount of pride. Well, I pulled this one off again. You’re a good one … There were times when little old ladies would pat me on the back and say, “You’re one of the best young men that I have ever known.” I would think back and think “If you really knew me, you wouldn’t think that.” (Salter, 2003, p. 199)

Many child molesters offend with others present.

“In many instances, a child molester offends with other children or even another adult present. According to one study, 54.9% of child molesters offended when another child was present and 23.9% offended when another adult was present (Underwood, Patch, Cappelletty, & Wolfe, 1999). The abuse, of course, may be subtle and not easily detected. … The fact that many sex offenders molest victims with others present is critical for clergy and laity to understand. Without this recognition, offenders often argue that a child’s allegations are absurd—after all, who would sexually touch a child with others in the room? A pastor acquainted with studies such as those cited in this article will tell a suspect that, as it turns out, many sex offenders engage in precisely this conduct.

Child molesters often abuse children in the name of God.

Child molesters often use religious or spiritual themes in the abuse of children. Child molesters may cite a child’s biological reaction to abuse and contend the victim equally enjoyed the abuse and is equally sinful. It is not uncommon for a molester to pray with his victim and ask God’s forgiveness for both. A molester may tell a victim that if he or she disclosed the abuse, the church will condemn the victim for his or her sin. … According to one sex offender treatment provider, sexual abuse in the name of God creates a “triple trauma” involving the abuse itself, the betrayal of trust, and spiritual harm that often includes “threats regarding God and damnation” (Pendergrast, 2004). According to Pendergrast:

Fear of retribution from God, whom the abusers related ‘gave me permission to do this to you,’ and ‘if you tell anyone, God will punish you in hell for eternity,’ produces an intense fear as well as feeling of confusion. The confusion results from the fact their religion teaches them that what they are doing is wrong and sinful, but the religious abusers teach them that the God of their religion gave them permission to sexually abuse them. (p. 285)


Don’t assume for a moment that this is not an issue that can readily be found within Churches of Christ. In fact, some of the more public and legal precedent cases of the last few decades have been from within our tradition. To assume that this is an issue “in the denominations” or for Catholics is at best naïve and more likely cowardice. 

Here are just three (although there are more) examples of how this issue has impacted our tribe:

The legal precedent-setting case before the Colorado Supreme Court concerning individual and church financial liability in regard to the response to allegations of clergy sexual abuse involving the Bear Valley Church of Christ.

The highly publicized story of the family of Les Ferguson, Jr. Their disabled son was sexually abused and then later murdered along with the boys mother by the abuser. You can follow more of Les’s journey through this ordeal here.

Jimmy Hinton, a minister at the Somerset Church of Christ in Pennsylvania, conducts seminars abuse sex abuse prevention after his father, also a former minister in Churches of Christ was convicted of sexual crimes against a minor and sentenced to 30-60 years in prison. More information about his seminars here 

Finally, you can simply take a look at the search results for “sexual abuse” from the Christian Chronicle

(UPDATE: Because of some complications with the search engine at the Christian Chronicle this link displays no results. This was not my intention. The Christian Chronicle has been an outspoken voice on this issue and I am thankful for their desire to articulate the need for change over the last decade. So, when you click this link you will have to do your own search. Erik Tryggestad, the editor at the Christian Chronicle has helpfully suggested the following terms: "sexual abuse", "child abuse", and "molestation".)


I am of the opinion that many in our tradition when confronted with this conversation appeal to one of two cop-outs. (1) This is not a problem that Churches of Christ have. (2) No one else is doing anything about it either.

Hopefully, this foray into this issue has proven the first idea to be patently false. Secondly, here are a brief listing of resources from various other Christian traditions who have in fact done something to address this issue within their traditions:

Southern Baptist Convention
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America - Sexual Abuse Prevention /// Clergy Sexual Abuse Prevention
The Episcopal Church
Seventh-Day Adventist 
Unitarian Universalist Association
Church of the Nazarene
United Methodist Church
United Church of Christ
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)
Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)
Roman Catholic (in the United States) 

Resources from Churches of Christ (that I am aware of): NONE.


So consider this a call to no longer be silent, but to be proactive within Churches of Christ for the protection of our children and the care of those who are already victims of this horrible sin.

I wish to call on ministers, elders, school administrators, scholars, counselors, moms and dads, grandparents, and siblings, victims, and concerned people throughout our tradition to no longer be silent in the CofC about sexual abuse.

There are certainly other important and interrelated conversations that we could be having (adult sexual abuse, domestic violence, etc.), and those are important. But I believe we should start here and now with our children, with the most innocent and most vulnerable among us.

To this end, I want to begin a conversation. Using the hashtag #SilentCofC I want us to share resources, invite people into conversation, share our stories of abuse that perhaps have gone unspoken until now. It is time for this to no longer be a peripheral issue for our tribe.

I will attempt to collect and link all of the material that is generated by #SilentCofC here (create page).

In the meantime, speak up. We need you.


[i] U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sex Offenses and Offenders. 1997.

[ii] 1998 Commonwealth Fund Survey of the Health of Adolescent Girls. 1998.

[iii] World Health Organization. 2002.

[iv] Briere, J., and D. M. Eliot, “Prevalence and Psychological Sequence of Self-Reported Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in General Population.” Child Abuse & Neglect, 2003, Vol. 27, Issue 10, pp. 1205–1222.

[v] Douglas, Emily, and D. Finkelhor, Childhood Sexual Abuse Fact Sheet. Crimes Against Children Research Center, May 2005. (

[vi] Finkelhor, D., “The Prevention of Childhood Sexual Abuse.” Future of Children, 2009, 19(2):169–94.

[vii] Kilpatrick, D., R. Acierno, B. Saunders, H. Resnick, C. Best, and P. Schnurr, “National Survey of Adolescents.” Charleston, SC: Medical University of South Carolina, National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center, 1998.

[viii] “Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident, and Offender Characteristics.” U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000.

[ix] “National Crime Victimization Survey.” U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1996.

[x] U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children’s Bureau, “Child Maltreatment 2010.”

[xi] Truman, Jennifer l., Ph.D., BJS Statistician, “National Crime Victimization Survey 2010.” U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, September 2011. ( (November 1, 2012)

[xii] Canadian Centre for Child Protection Inc., “Child Sexual Abuse–It Is Your Business.” ( p. 10. (November 1, 2012)